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Meteorologie,Climatologie,Agrometeorologie - Enciclopedia
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Meteorologie
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vaporii


Exista trei stari fizice ale materiei si este posibila trecerea de la una la alta.
    Fenomenele de topire, evaporare, sublimare se fac cu absorbtie de caldura iar solidificarea, condensarea (lichefierea) si desublimarea     se fac cu eliberare de caldura.
( Pentru ca 1kg de apa la 0oC sa treaca din stare solida in stare lichida, acesta trebuie sa primeasca 0.334 * 106 J, care reprezinta caldura latenta de topire a apei la 00C, iar pentru a obtine 1 Kg de vapori de apa la 0oC pornind de la 1 Kg de apa lichida aflat initial la 0oC si la presiune atmosferica normala, trebuie furnizati apei 2,5*106J, care reprezinta caldura latenta de evaporare a apei, la 0oC )
    Caldurile latente variaza in functie de temperatura si cantitatile de caldura absorbite in cele doua schimbari de faza anterior mentionate sunt restituite identic in l transformarile  inverse.
    Orice condensare a vaporilor de apa in atmosfera, adica orice formare de nori, implica o eliberare de caldura.
    Orice evaporare a apei lichide in atmosfera, fie ca este vorba de nori sau precipitatii , fie ca se face la suprafata oceanelor,  implica o absorbtie de caldura. Caldura poate proveni de la apa care se evapora sau de la aerul atmosferic  (evaporarea picaturilor din nori  sau a picaturilor foarte fine din precipitatii).  Astfel, prin aceste procese, cantitati insemnate de caldura sunt imprumutate de la oceane in decursul evaporarii si eliberate ulterior in atmosfera prin condensare.
    Acesta reprezinta un transfer de caldura considerat ca fiind foarte activ si care contribuie considerabil la alimentarea energetica a " masinii atmosferice".

Supraracirea
In general norii sunt constituiti din picaturi de apa lichida, chiar si cand temperatura este negativa, iar apa este din nori este numita  supraracita.
Acest fenomen de supraracire este  foarte frecvent in atmosfera.


   Evaporare ( vapori   nesaturanti  si vaporii saturanti)
Vaporii care sunt  in echilibru cu apa lichida se numesc vapori saturanti in raport cu apa lichida. Presiunea lor, reprezentata prin "ew" se numeste presiunea vaporilor saturanti sau presiunea maxima a vaporilor.
                 ew = emax  
Daca vaporii nu sunt  saturanti, nu exista un echilibru intre fazele lichida si gazoasa. In acest caz se numesc vapori uscati ( nesaturanti).
Presiunea vaporilor  saturanti (sau presiunea maxima) ew nu depinde decat de  temperatura, se pot nota cu ew(t).
In nori, la aceleasi temperaturi negative, vaporii de apa pot fi in echilibru cu gheata. Acesti  vapori de apa sunt saturanti in raport cu gheata, iar presiunea lor este reprezentata prin ei , si depinde doar de temperatura.
Fenomenul de evaporare este localizat pe suprafata libera a lichidului si poate avea loc in atmosfera libera la orice nivel.
Vaporii produsi in urma evaporarii se amesteca cu aerul, fenomen denumit difuzia vaporilor in atmosfera. Viteza de evaporare poate fi mare cu cat:
     1. presiunea atmosferica scade
2.    exista circulatie a aerului la suprafata libera a lichidului care se evapora
3.    temperatura lichidului creste
4.    suprafata de contact dintre lichid si aer este mai mare     
Pentru a inceta evaporarea presiunea "e" a vaporilor de apa din aer, la contactul cu lichidul trebuie sa fie egala cu presiunea maxima "ew" corespunzatoare temperaturii lichidului. Viteza de evaporare va creste proportional cu diferenta dintre cele doua presiuni  ew - e .
Cu cat temperatura apei creste, cu atat creste si viteza de evaporare.






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Meteorologie

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