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Meteorologie,Climatologie,Agrometeorologie - Enciclopedia
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Meteorologie
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Curcubeul


    Curcubeul este un fotometeor des intalnit si foarte

frumos de fiecare data. Este format dintr-un grup de arcuri

concentrice, colorate de la violet la rosu, determinat de lumina

Soarelui pe o perdea de picaturi de apa din atmosfera, picaturi foarte

mici si in suspensie. Fenomenul apare datorita reflexiei si refractiei

luminii. Arcurile curcubeului, format pe perdeaua de apa datorita

luminii solare , sunt intotdeauna in partea opusa Soarelui. Arcurile

cele mai evidente formeaza curcubeul principal, sunt foarte colorate si

vizibile. Cerul este mai intunecat in exteriorul curcubeului decat in

sectorul cuprins sub arc. Culoarea violet se afla intotdeauna in

interiorul inelului, iar rosu se afla la exterior. Uneori culorile se

pot observa foarte bine si sunt distincte benzile, latimea benzilor

depinde de marimea picaturilor de apa.


    Se observa si un curcubeu secundar, mai voalat dar

mai lat decat arcul principal. In secundar culorile sunt aranjate

invers, adica violetul la exterior si rosu la interior. Acesta se

datoreaza unei duble reflexiiinterioare a razelor Soarelui in picatura

de apa, si a unui al doilea inim de deviatie pentru o incident

favorabila. Culorile sunt mai putin intense pentru ca razele luminoase

slabesc in intensitate datorita dublei reflexii.


    Cerul este aparent intunecat intre cele doua arce,

pentru ca picaturie de apa care se afla deasupra limitei superioare a

primului arc ( curcubeul principal) si cele aflate sub limita

inferioara a celui de-al doilea arc ( curcubeul secundar), nu emit nici

un fel de umina catre ochiul observatorului.


    Curcubeul principal se observa numai daca Soarele se

afla la o inaltime mai mica de 42 grade deasupra orizontului, iar arcul

secundar se vede numai daca Soarele este la o inaltime mai mica de 50

grade. Astfel in Romania curcubeul nu se poate observa in jurul dupa

amiezii in zilele de vara.


Mai exista si curcubeu datorat luminii Lunii, acesta fiind un arc alb-cenusiu sau culorile sunt foarte voalate.


    Mai rar se observa curcubeul alb. Acesta se formeaza

de obicei pe picaturi foarte mici de apa de cele mai multe ori pe un

banc de ceata. Apare ca un arc cu benzi albe, iar la exterior marginit

de o banda vag rosie, iar in interior de o banda albastra. Se datoreaza

refractiei si reflexiei luminii, si rareori difractiei luminii solare.


Picaturelele de apa foarte mici, pe care cad razele solare, produc

amestecul culorilor spectrale, din care rezulta acest curcubeu alb.







[ Înapoi ]


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Meteorologie

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