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Meteorologie,Climatologie,Agrometeorologie - Enciclopedia
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Meteorologie
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Stratus


 Norii Stratus sunt nori josi, ce se intind intre suprafata

terestra si  2 km altitudine, grosimea in general poate fi de la

zeci de metri la sute de metri. Stratus este format din picaturi mici

de apa ,iar daca temperaturile sunt foarte scazute, pot contine

particule mici de gheata. Acesti nori sunt cenusii, cu baza destul de

uniforma, din care cad burnite, ploi slabe, zapada grauntoasa,

mazariche. Inaltimea bazei norului este in medie intre 100 si 800 m.


 Ca procese principale care duc la formarea norilor Stratus, mai importante sunt:


- racirea aerului prin ascendenta pe pante line


- difuzia vaporilor de apa din masele de aer umed de deasupra

inversiunii si condensarea vaporilor surplus in partea superioara 

a stratului de aer ce se afla sub inversiune


- transportul turbulent al vaporilor de apa in stratul de sub inversiune


- condensarea vaporilor de apace are loc intr-o masa de aer rece aflata deasupra unei surse de apa


- racirea aerului mai cald in deplasarea  deasupra unei suprafete mai calde


Pe uscat, racirea poate fi determinata de radiatia nocturna, mai

intensa in noptile seninesi cu vant slab, iar pe apa racirea se

datoreaza proceselor advective.


 Norii Stratus se mai pot forma din ceata care se ridica  in

urma incalzirii suprafetei terestre sau in urma intensificarii vantului

in stratul de langa sol. Stratus  pot proveni si din nori mai

inalti din care cad precipitatii, aerul umezindu-se si racindu-se pe

seama evaporarii precipitatiilor ce cad din acesti nori ( Altostratus,

Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus,..).


  Acesti nori se pot intinde pe cer sub forma de fragmente cu

margini nedefinite, destramate, fiind o etapa in procesul de formare

sau destramare a panzelor intinse de Stratus.  Daca masa de aer

este foarte umeda si circulatia este slaba, baza norului devine difuza,

greu de precizat plafonul, pozitia Soarelui si a Lunii este complet

mascata. Iarna cerul poate ramane acoperit zile in sir. In conditiile

in care norii se destrama, in conditii de stabilitate atmosferica,

Soarele si Luna vor aparea ca niste discuri fara raza, dar luminoase si

bine conturate. Fragmentele de Stratus purtate de vant se pot

transforma in nori Cumulus humilis, datorita curentilor convectivi

ascendenti.


 Speciile norilor Stratus sunt nebulosus (este cea mai frecventa,

apare des iarna iar vizibilitatea orizontala este foarte redusa daca

baza norului este joasa) si fractus (provin din panze de ceata sau dupa

ploile de la deal si munte, au culoare alba, se transforma in Cumulus

si au viata scurta), iar ca varietati : opacus (nu se poate distinge

pozitia Soarelui sau a Lunii), translucidus (apartine speciei

nebulosus, se observa conturul Lunii sau a Soarelui) si undulatus(apar

mai rar, norul provenind din Stratocumulus) .








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