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Meteorologie,Climatologie,Agrometeorologie - Enciclopedia
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Meteorologie
Climatologie
Agrometeorologie

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Cumulonimbus


  Norul Cumulonimbus (Cb) se formeaza intr-un mediu instabil, care

cuprinde un strat gros din atmosfera, stratul instabil putand ajunge in

tropopauza, iar convectia va avea nivelul la 7 -8 km altitudine.


Trecerea din stadiul de Cumulus congestus in Cb se face in urma

miscarilor ascendente intense, viteza curentilor ascendenti creste

treptat de la nivelul de condensare la varful norului, unde este maxima

( cca 40 m/s) si exista un strat stabil de aer. In nor apar curentii

descendenti, slabi la inceput, care incep sa franeze curentii

ascendenti, si apar vartejuri care dau norului aspectul de bucle in

partea superioara.


In prima etapa a trecerii de la Cumulus la Cb are loc trecerea la

stadiul de inghetare, varful norului va parea ca fumega, devine cetos-

etapa Cb calvus. Din Cb calvus norul se transforma in Cb capillatus,

norul fiind in cea mai mare parte imbracat intr-un strat fibros. Daca

exista un strat de inversiune la baza stratului stabil, norul nu poate

strapunge aceasta zona si se va lati pe orizontala, luand aspect de

nicovala - stadiul de Cb incus. Din aceasta faza, activitatea

convectiva este maxima, apoi incepe destramarea treptata a norului Cb

incus. Nicovala se va separa de varf deoarece curentii ascendenti care

o alimentau slabesc, transformandu-se in nori Cirrus densi (spissatus

cumulonimbogentus).


 Norul Cb este format din picaturi de apa pana la nivelul de

inghet; curentii ascendenti puternici transporta picaturile de apa in

partea superioara a norului, unde ingheata, iar  particulele de

apa deja inghetate continua sa creasca formandu-se grindina, fulgi de

zapada sau mazariche. Particulele mari de gheata din partea superioara

a norului nemaiputand fi sustinute de curentii ascendenti cad prin nor,

iar in cadere prin coalescenta ( vezi coalescenta) continua sa se

mareasca. Aceste particule inghetate ajunse in zona cu temperaturi

pozitive ale norului, incep sa se topeasca si sa continue dumul

descendent ca picaturi mari de ploaie ( aversele care sunt specifice

Cb). O parte din aceste particule inghetate neavand timp sa se

topeasca,  cad ca atare sub forma de grindina, mazariche. Dupa ce

a inceput sa cada ploaia, curentii descendenti se intaresc, cu cat

aversele sunt mai intense.


Norii Cb sunt de cele mai multe ori insotiti de fenomene electrice si uneori de vijelii, starea vremii schimbandu-se repede.


 Norii Cb dinamici se formeaza de obicei in zona de separatie

dintre doua mase de aer unde gradientul termic este foarte mare. Aerul

rece patrunde repede pe sub aerul cald, fortandu-l sa urce brusc in

inaltime. Norii formati prin convectie dinamica sunt foarte bine

dezvoltati, iar in altitudine in partea anterioara a norului si in

interior apar vanturi puternice. Datorita acestor vanturi varful Cb se

desface in nori lenticulari, care indica aparititia fenomenelor

orajoase . La baza Cb apar nori foarte josi numiti pannus (nori de

vreme rea). Acesti Cb dinamici se pot forma datorita convectiei

initiate de la un strat superior de aer stabil ( care poate fi o zona

izoterma cu umezeala ridicata la altitudine sau un strat de ceata).







[ Înapoi ]


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Meteorologie

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