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Meteorologie,Climatologie,Agrometeorologie - Enciclopedia
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Meteorologie
Climatologie
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Presiunea


Presiunea este una din marimile fizice care descrie starea atmosferei

foarte importanta pentru prevederea vremii. Se masoara in milibari ( 1

mb=100Pa=100 N/m2). Pentru nivelul marii presiunea este de

1000hPa. In practica meteorologica se iau in considerare straturi la

nivele standard ale atmosferei: 900, 850, 700, 500, 200,100, 50. Pentru

a analiza campul presiunii, meteorologii traseaza harti sinoptice si

harti de topografie barica. Pentru presiunea la nivelul marii  se

traseaza izobare ( linii de egala presiune), iar pentru suprafetele de

aceeasi presiune la altitudine se traseaza izohipse ( linii de aceeasi

inaltime de geopotential). Dupa ce se obtine imaginea campului baric se

observa formatiunile barice care actioneaza in atmosfera: ciclonii,

anticiclonii, talveguri, dorsale ( vezi formatiuni barice).


Forta de presiune pe unitatea de masa este orientata dinspre presiunle

mici spre cele mari, astfel se poate defini gradientul baric , un

element foarte important in generarea miscarilor atmosferice. Toate

statiile meteorologice masoara presiunea, instrumentul folosit fiind

barometru. Pentru a compara presiunile inregistrate in diferite puncte

de observatie, trebuie ca acestea sa fie reduse la acelasi nivel , de

obicei la nivelul marii cu ajutorul unei formule.


In cazul in care sunt necesare nivelari barometrice  la care nu se

cere o precizie mare, se foloseste treapta barica. Prin treapta barica

se defineste grosimea unui strat de aer din atmosfera, ce este

caracterizat printr-o diferenta de presiune de 1 milibar intre

suprafata sa inferioara si cea superioara.




Δz=-1/ρg




Langa sol, treapta barica are o valoare de aproximativ 8 m, valori usor mai mari vara, iar iarna mai scazute.











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Meteorologie

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